Edward III- OP #3

Edward III was born at Windsor Castle in 1312 and his parents were Edward II and Isabella of France. Edward III’s father was a rather terrible king due to his  frequent failures in warfare and he was eventually removed from the throne in favor of his son, Edward III. Edward III became king of England at the young age of 14 in 1327. He ruled for 5o years until his death in 1377, and was attributed with restoring royal authority to England during his rule. Edward III was largely concerned with warfare and during his early reign he earned great respect for the many victories he had over Scotland. France and Scotland had an alliance, however, which posed an issue for Edward because he could not hold Scotland and also fight a war with France on two fronts. Instead of paying homage to the French king like his father, Edward III decided to make various continental alliances to keep France at bay. This proved to be fiscally costly and eventually, Edward III was forced to meet the French in battle. His first major victory came in Normandy at Caen and Crecy, in which Edward defeated much larger French forces due to a favorable terrain for his army. Soon after, another English force defeated a Scottish army and captured the Scottish king, King David II. These victories were huge for England and proved that Edwards military prowess was substantial. Edward III was forced to scale back his campaign over France and Scotland in 1348 because the Black Death hit England, killing at least a third of the population. This led to a temporary crippling of England’s power, although recovery was swift. After the economic recovery of England following the Black Death, Edward III had hopes of picking up his military campaign where it left off, although this time it was largely unsuccessful. This was largely due to political unrest within England, something that Edward was not nearly as experienced with as compared to warfare. Later in his reign, his military success had subsided and he started to delegate his rule over England to his sons. In 1377, Edward III died from a stroke and was succeeded by his grandson Richard II. During his reign, King Edward III was credited with many great legislations. One of these legislations was the Statute of Labourers of 1351, in which he addressed the shortage of workers during the Black Death. The legislation made it so that wages were fixed at their pre-plague value, although it failed in the end due to its nature of violating the law of supply and demand. Edward III also made various reformations within parliament. He is credited with creating the procedure for impeachment as well as the office of the Speaker. In addition to these reformations, Edward III funded his wars by taxing land and the export and import of products, both of which had to be approved by parliament first. Edward III enjoyed large support from his subjects and even higher nobility throughout his reign. This proved to be one of the main reasons that his reign was overall successful. He focused on building alliances with the noblemen as opposed to keeping them at a distance like his father had.










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